A new era in air traffic surveillance became reality on 12 December 2013 with the first fitment mandate for Automatic Dependant Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) technology coming into effect for all Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aircraft flying at or above 29 000 feet in Australia’s airspace.
On 16 August 2012, the Director of Aviation Safety, CASA made instruments for a phased requirement for all IFR aircraft to be equipped for ADS-B by 2 February 2017. This applies to all Australian aircraft and will enhances Airservices capability to provide safe and efficient air traffic management services.
2014 – IFR Forward fit: Any aircraft that is first registered on or after 6 February 2014 and is operated under the IFR must carry serviceable ADS-B transmitting equipment that complies with the CASA Civil Aviation Order (CAOs) 20.18
2016 – IFR for Western Australia: On and after 4 February 2016, an aircraft that is operated under the IFR in Airspace that is Class A, B, C or E and within the arc of a circle that starts 500 NM true north from Perth aerodrome and finishes 500 NM true east from Perth Airport must carry serviceable ADS-B transmitting equipment that complies with Civil Aviation Order 20.18
2017 – All IFR aircraft: On and after 2 February 2017, any aircraft that is first registered before 6 February 2014 and is operated under the IFR must carry serviceable ADS-B transmitting equipment that complies with Civil Aviation Order 20.18
On 2 February 2017, CASA will grant two temporary authorisation instruments to enable a limited number of non-equipped IFR aircraft to fly without ADS-B under specific conditions.
Under the instrument for domestic aircraft, Australian aircraft manufactured before 6 February 2014 operating in Australian airspace but not equipped with ADS-B will be able to fly IFR for private operations in Class D airspace (subject to ATC clearance), including transiting Class C and E steps when arriving at or departing from a Class D aerodrome (subject to ATC clearance), or Class G airspace (below 10,000 feet) until 1 January 2020. They will not be able to fly in Class A airspace.
Under the instrument for foreign registered aircraft, IFR aircraft with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder may fly in Australian airspace, including oceanic control areas, but must fly under 29,000 feet in continental airspace unless they receive a clearance from ATC. They will need to be equipped with ADS-B when the instrument expires on 6 June 2020.
More information can be found on the CASA website.
For foreign registered aircraft see NFRM 1305AS and CASA 61/14 – Direction – use of ADS-B in foreign aircraft engaged in private operations (F2014L0058)
Mode S Mandate 2014 – 201 (Civil Aviation Order 20.18 )
2014 – Mode S for New aircraft and Mode S for New transponders: Any aircraft that is first registered or modified by having its transponder installation replaced on or after 6 February 2014 and is operated in Class A, B, C or E airspace or above 10,000 feet above mean sea level in Class G airspace must carry a serviceable Mode S transponder.
2016 – Mode S for Airport surface movement: All aircraft (VFR and IFR) operating at Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne or Perth airports must carry a serviceable Mode S transponder that meets the standards on and after 4 February 2016. This will provide for optimised interoperation with the Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System that has been installed and commissioned at Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth airports.
If a new transponder is installed in a VFR aircraft to meet the above requirement, then it must be ADS-B capable – see Mode S transponders, ADS-B and VFR aircraft
If a new transponder is installed in an IFR aircraft, it would be sensible to ensure that ADS-B is operational at the same time to comply with the IFR ADS-B mandates that become active in February 2016 and February 2017.
ADS-B fact sheet
AOPA magazine article: Trans continental traffic information and flight following (by Andrew Andersen)
Civil Aviation Order 20.18
Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 20.18 Amendment Instrument 2012 (No. 1)
Civil Aviation Order 82.1
Civil Aviation Order 82.3
Civil Aviation Order 82.5